WHY ?

The right to quote comes with a duty: the obligation to identify your quotations.
This identification is done according to some conventions, the most obvious being the use of quotation marks.

These rules allow the reader to :

1. See where the quotations are located in the text. It is then possible to differentiate between words and ideas of which you are the author, and those which should be credited to a third party.

2. Refer directly to your source in order to :

  • Check the integrity of your quotation (no changes)
  • Verify the completeness of your quote (no text deletion that could change the meaning of the sentence)
  • Check the relevance of your quotation in comparison to your remarks and to the initial comments of the author
  • Deepen your comments by allowing the reader to study your reference texts if s/he wishes

By failing to identify your quotes, you give the impression that you have not done any research, or have even tried to take ownership of others’ work.

However, properly identifying your quotations allows your reader to appreciate the richness of your research, the quality of your analytical mind and the accuracy of your personal analysis.

HOW IDENTIFYING A QUOTATION ?

When using a quotation in a text, the rules require that you:

  • Use quotation marks
    « Votre texte »
  • Use square brackets and an ellipsis to cut out part of a quotation that you do not want to use.
    […]
  • Respect the original punctuation, capital letters, bold or italics, even if there are mistakes!
  • Each quotation must also be referenced to the original work directly in the text with information about the author and the date of publication :
    • directly within the text with the information regarding the author and the publication date :
      « According to a study by The Bank of America, […] more people are likely to think that cars manufactured by the Japanese are better designed than those of GM, Ford or Chrysler. » (Arnaud DUMAS, 2007)
    • And/or by inserting a reference to a footnote at the bottom of the page.
      This note contains more information about the book, such as: author, title, publication date, page number, etc. :
      « According to a study by The Bank of America, […] more people are likely to think that cars manufactured by the Japanese are better designed than those of GM, Ford or Chrysler. » (1)(1) Arnaud Dumas, The conditions of a French “comeback”, The New Factory, 2007, p.26

HOW IDENTIFYING REPHRASING (PARAPHRASE) ?

If you are paraphrasing, you do not only have to find synonyms for each word used by the author. You must review the syntax fully and put in quotation marks any word of the author that you use.

And in any case, you will not forget to cite the source, as in the previous example.

When writing your bibliography, different rules are applied depending on the nature of the source: see also Bibliographic references.. For more information about the ISO standards, please see this page To go further.