The mandatory rule
When working on an individual written production, (report, dissertation, thesis, article or essay..) whenever existing texts are quoted, it is imperative to apply citation rules even if the author is the same as the original document. Since it is a different work, it is important to lay out what constitutes the «old» production and what belongs to the «new» production.
Self-plagiarism according to the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CRNS)
« Self-plagiarism occurs when an author partially or entirely « recycles » previously published content without citing the sources. This practice can constitute a breach of ethic rules if the document or the excerpts recycled were already published since they do not comply with the duty of only submitting original works. » 1
Why is it serious?
Self-plagiarism deprives the reader of his rights
Self-plagiarism is not to be taken lightly! According to Michelle BERGADAA, a plagiarism specialist, « self-plagiarism is one of the most concerning cases of lack of scientific integrity ». Although « self-plagiarism might not be a theft of others’ ideas », it still robs the reader of his « fundamental right […] to access original sources and knowledge ». 2
Self-plagiarism skews evaluations and games reward systems.
What is at stakes here is not only a clear identification of the author (who in this case is the same), but also the understanding that minor or substantial portions of the text come from a previous work , and are consequently , not part of a new production.
How then can it be possible to assess the new effort made as well as the input of new concepts and ideas ?
Should we consider normal the fact that someone might be rewarded multiple times, sometimes even paid several times for a work that has simply been duplicated? 3
Plagiarism and self-plagiarism: equal sanctions
Therefore, saying that « duplicating your own work is not plagiarism » cannot be considered a powerful defense argument against accusations, contrary to what Etienne Klein, a science philosopher, has claimed when he was accused of self-plagiarism. 4
In all cases, it is important to be transparent with the reader. When citing one’s own work, quotation marks and references to the original work are required. Otherwise it will be considered as self-plagiarism; knowing that self-plagiarism just like plagiarism, can be sanctioned.
1 – Comité d’éthique du CNRS, Promouvoir une recherche intègre et responsable, July 2014.
2 – Bergadaà M., Autoplagiat, Plagiat et fraude scientifique, June 20th, 2013.
3 – Wager E., Why is Redundant Publication a Problem?, 2015.
4- Maouche S., L’ « affaire » Étienne Klein : « Se recopier » est un auto-plagiat, Médiapart, December 8th, 2016. Available here .